KPV Peptide: Inflammation Studies


Lysine, Proline, and Valine are the amino acids that make up the KPV tri-peptide, which occurs naturally. The pituitary gland produces the alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), which may be located at the end terminal of this hormone.

Because the PepT1 transporter is generally expressed in the small intestine [i], studies suggest the pept1-mediated tripeptide KPV may exert its action throughout the organism.  How Does the KPV Peptide Function?

KPV Core Peptides
KPV Peptide: Inflammation Studies

Research suggests KPV is an effective anti-inflammatory peptide [ii] with possible antimicrobial and wound-healing activities. Even though the effects of KPV are suggested to be rather particular and confined to a small range, the peptide may nonetheless have a systemic application. Before delving too deeply into the research theories surrounding this peptide, it is essential to have a reasonably solid comprehension of its proposed action mechanism.

Exactly within the cells, where it can decrease NF-B, findings imply that KPV may exert
significant anti-inflammatory effects, resulting from its potent anti-inflammatory capabilities. Investigations purport it does this by accumulating in the nucleus and then blocking competitively the interaction between p65RelA and Imp-3, which is the interaction that is responsible for the creation of NF-B.

Researchers speculate that because this protein appears to be largely responsible for stimulating the production of pro-inflammatory genes, such as cytokines and chemokines, among which interleukins 1 and 6 are the most important [iii], downregulating NF-B may result in a considerable reduction in inflammation.

Scientists hypothesize that this peptide may exhibit immunostimulant impacts, as well as a possible strong immunomodulatory action since it may stabilize the immune system’s mast cells, reducing the aftereffects of allergic responses. In addition to this, it may have a substantial impact on the expression of both B and T cells.

It has been suggested, via animal research, that KPV may speed up the healing of cutaneous wounds and skin ulcers. In addition, it has been speculated to have the capacity to modify the metabolism of collagen deposition, reducing scar tissue formation [iv].

In addition to avoiding inflammation at the sites of wounds, it may also serve to defend against infection caused by germs, as scientists hypothesize. Studies suggest that its alleged antibacterial capabilities were speculated by preventing colony formation in Staphylococcus aureus across a wide range of quantities, which was done in one experiment [v].  

KPV Peptide Research

KPV Peptide and Inflammation

Research suggests that test subjects with autoimmune disorders, often marked by inflammation, are the best candidates to observe to explore the peptide’s alleged anti-inflammatory qualities. Findings imply that the anti-inflammatory effects may be more pronounced in the gastrointestinal system. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that KPV has been speculated in research studies to possibly mitigate inflammatory bowel illnesses (IBD).

woman holding stomach with bellyache or period pains or indegestion
KPV Peptide: Inflammation Studies

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic, recurrent inflammatory illness of the colon classified as a subtype of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This disease is characterized by inflammation that weakens the colonic mucosal barrier and increases the likelihood of bacterial invasion into underlying tissues. Investigations purport that KPV may help reduce inflammation and encourage the repair of mucosal tissue, stopping additional damage [vi].  

In situations of inflammatory bowel illness, researchers speculate that KPV may reduce pain by inhibiting the activation of inflammatory signaling pathways, including NF-kB and MAP kinase, via hPepT1 transporters [i].  Further research is necessary in this area.

KPC Peptide and Cancer

The findings of one research study suggest KPV was observed to inhibit the development of cancer in wild-type mice that had colitis [vii]. 

KPV and Allergies

Scientists suggested that KPV might efficiently address the inflammation in lung disorders’ airways, and research hypothesizes it may be a viable compound for inflammatory pulmonary disease. Because of this, studies suggest KPV may also be useful in mitigating the effects of allergic responses, at least in theory [viii].  

Alongside mitigating various dermatological disorders, research suggests that KPV may be used to help with cutaneous wounds in a way that results in little scarring. This is one of the potential aesthetic properties of KPV. In addition, findings imply that the tripeptide KPV is researched for its proposed accelerated cutaneous wound healing properties.

KPV vs. TB-500

Investigations purport that although the primary purpose of both of these peptides may be to speed up the healing process of wounds, their origins are considered to be quite different from each other.
KPV is a tri-peptide that occurs naturally and is generated by alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), as opposed to TB-500, which is created synthetically.

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[i] Dalmasso G, Charrier-Hisamuddin L, Nguyen HT, Yan Y, Sitaraman S, Merlin D. PepT1-
mediated tripeptide KPV uptake reduces intestinal inflammation. Gastroenterology.
2008;134(1):166-178. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2007.10.026

[ii] Brzoska T, Luger TA, Maaser C, Abels C, Böhm M. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating
hormone and related tripeptides: biochemistry, antiinflammatory and protective effects in
vitro and in vivo, and future perspectives for the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory
diseases. Endocr Rev. 2008;29(5):581-602. doi:10.1210/er.2007-0027

[iii] Land SC. Inhibition of cellular and systemic inflammation cues in human bronchial
epithelial cells by melanocortin-related peptides: mechanism of KPV action and a role for
MC3R agonists. Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol. 2012;4(2):59-73.

[iv] Dinparastisaleh R, Mirsaeidi M. Antifibrotic and Anti-Inflammatory Actions of α-
Melanocytic Hormone: New Roles for an Old Player. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2021;14(1):45.
Published 2021 Jan 8. doi:10.3390/ph14010045

[v] Böhm M, Luger T. Are melanocortin peptides future therapeutics for cutaneous wound
healing?. Exp Dermatol. 2019;28(3):219-224. doi:10.1111/exd.13887

[vi] Xiao B, Xu Z, Viennois E, et al. Orally Targeted Delivery of Tripeptide KPV via
Hyaluronic Acid-Functionalized Nanoparticles Efficiently Alleviates Ulcerative Colitis. Mol
Ther. 2017;25(7):1628-1640. doi:10.1016/j.ymthe.2016.11.020

[vii] Viennois E, Ingersoll SA, Ayyadurai S, et al. Critical role of PepT1 in promoting colitis-
associated cancer and therapeutic benefits of the anti-inflammatory PepT1-mediated tripeptide
KPV in a murine model. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;2(3):340-357.

[viii] Land SC. Inhibition of cellular and systemic inflammation cues in human bronchial
epithelial cells by melanocortin-related peptides: mechanism of KPV action and a role for
MC3R agonists. Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol. 2012;4(2):59-73.

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